In a series of articles on ‘Kolar District Human Development Report-2014’, the Local Governance Clinic explains the development and issues that are perturbing development in Mulbagal Taluk (our work site) and in the district of Kolar. This article, ninth in the series, titled “Gender and Development in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat and Kolar district ” explains the status of women and their issues in the district of Kolar and Mulbagal Taluk. The Local Governance Clinic, has carefully analysed the status of women in Mulbagal TP and extracted key parameters to learn how their intervention can better understand the severity of the issues involved. This comparative analysis (among co-taluk panchayats) helps narrowing the focus of clinic’s intervention. It is important to mention here that while the source for data remained the HDI report, analysis work is done and tabulated by the Clinic.
Women plays a center role in Human development. However, for various (structural) reasons , women lagged behind acquiring their rights in India. Many schemes like Mother and child tracking system (to improve the health status of pregnant women and children), Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana, Conditional Maternity Benefit, Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls – Sabala , The Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (The National Credit Fund for Women), Priyadarshini – SHGs development etc was introduced for the upliftment of women at the national level. The government of Karnataka has launched many schemes like Bhagyalakshmi scheme, attendance scholarship for girls from rural areas, crèches for the children of working women, Housing scheme for women (Indira Awas Yojana), Widow pension scheme, Ujjawala (for the Prevention of Trafficking and Rescue, Rehabilitation and Re – integration of victims of trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation) to improve the status of women in Karnataka.
Gender Inequality Index (GII) is another important index of the Human Development Index. It takes reproductive health, empowerment and political participation of women as important components. The indicators and their values are presented in the following table which highlights the status of women and their issues in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat. For example, the first row refers to Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) value of Mulbagal TP i.e. 211. Mulbagal TP stands at 5th place among 5 TPs in the Kolar district. The range value indicates the relative minimum and maximum values of other taluk panchayats.
|Parameter||Value||Rank of TP in the District||Range values* of Indexes of TPs in Kolar District (excluding Mulbagal Values)||Remarks|
|MMR||211||5||196-80||· Highest MMR in the district|
|Share of Institutional Deliveries||97.97%||2||97.38%-98.63%|
|Anemia among pregnant women||50.32%||1||85.45%-63.33%|
|% of Female elected representations in Pachayat Raj Institutions||43.31%||3||41.83%-44.15%||· 20% women from SC/ST communities and 24% belong to backward classes|
|Share of females in 0-6 years age population||49.04%||3||48.67%-49.19%|
|Female Literacy Rate||61.90%||5||62.30-71.95%|
|Female work participation rate||51.11%||1||29.02%-49.75%|
|Female non-agri workers in total female workers||27.31%||4||24.64%-47.96%|
|Female agricultural wage rates||236.50||1||236.50-236.50||· Equal in all 5 TPs|
|GII||0.098||2||0.148-0.093||· Relatively good|
|Child Sex Ratio||962.41||3||947.99-968.08||· Almost same as district’s average (962.38)|
|%Gap between Male and Female literacy||17.33%||2||17.86%-13.11%||· Higher than district’s (14.97%)and state’s gap (14.72%)|
|Crime reported against women (2012)||20||1||20-60||· Least in the district|
(1) *The range values represented here comprises of the value of worst and good values. The right handside value indicates the relatively better value. For ex. In the case of %BPL, lower the value of BPL, the better is the value of that parameter.
(2) All values are calculated based on the data available for the year 2008-09
The report highlights that gender disparities are evident in important indicators like literacy, work participation and political representation in Panchayat Raj Institutions and Urban Local Bodies. Important problems like early marriages (before 18 years; as highlighted by District Level Household Survey (DLHS) conducted in 2007-08), Crime against women should be addressed by the respective authorities.
In the next article, Clinic writes about the status of “Status of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes” in Mulbagal Taluk and in Kolar district.
Written by: Vikash Madduri