In a series of articles on ‘Kolar District Human Development Report-2014’, the Local Governance Clinic explains the development and issues that are perturbing development in Mulbagal Taluk (our work site) and in the district of Kolar. This article, tenth in the series, titled “Status of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat and in Kolar district” explains the status of SC and ST communities and their issues in the district of Kolar and Mulbagal Taluk. The Local Governance Clinic, has carefully analysed the status of these communities in Mulbagal TP and extracted key parameters to learn how their intervention can better understand the severity of the issues involved. This comparative analysis (among co-taluk panchayats) helps narrowing the focus of clinic’s intervention. It is important to mention here that while the source for data remained the HDI report, analysis work is done and tabulated by the Clinic.
|Parameter||Value||Rank of TP in the District||Range values* of Indexes of TPs in Kolar District (excluding Mulbagal Values)||Remarks|
|% of SC Population||28.93%||2||23.61%-40.18%||· Lower than district’s population (30.32%)|
|% of ST Population||3.34%||4||2.41%-10.65%||· Lower than district’s population (5.13%)|
|Sex Ratio in SC community||998.91||2||990.23-1019.16||· Lower than district’s ratio (1003)|
|Sex Ratio in ST community||958.33||5||962.72-987.06||· Lower than district’s ratio (972.02)|
|Sex Ratio in non-SC,non-ST communities||984.36||2||956.67-989.41||· Higher than district’s ratio (978.89)|
|Proportion of SC children in Enrollment||31.45||2||25.25-40.99||· Slightly lower than district’s value (31.82)|
|Proportion of SC children in Enrollment||4.26||4||3.98-25.38||· Lower than district’s value (6.50)|
|People with Disability (Taluk’s Proportion)#||14.70%||5||16.97%-24.80%|
|^ in lakhs of rupees,
All values are calculated based on the data available for the year 2008-09
Survey conducted in 2007-08
Perhaps, one can say that a place is developed, if its lower sections of people or vulnerable people are developed. Kolar district, on this measure, has not fared well. Kolar district has highest SC population in the state, when compared to other districts. However, the standard of living of SC and ST communities are poor and is far beyond of other non SC and non ST communities. These communities are clearly disadvantaged. 37.55% of SC and 38.44% of ST population in the district have no near by access to drinking water while for other community groups(non SC, non ST) the no access is only 27.10%. Similarly, 66.78% of SC and 73.58% of ST population in the district do open defecation while the same for other community groups (non SC, non ST), the figure is 44.96% only.
The report prepares a Composite Dalit Development Index (CDDI), that has been prepared to determine the development of Dalits in the one Gram panchayath of the district. Dalit Deprivation Index (DDI) is further derived from CDDI. Data for the purpose of this calculation and analysis was collected from Avani Gram Panchayath in Mulbagal Taluk of Kolar District. The following table briefly highlights the indicators of CDDI and DDI.
|Institutional inclusion||0.67||Healthy presence of SC members
in various committees such as SDMCs,
Water Societies, etc.
|Social inclusion||0.60||Entry in to temples, hotels etc is good but Dalits having
freedom to enter a non-Dalit house is
|Perception of discrimination||0.70||The perception of discrimination in terms
of access to education or health services
is quite low, whereas some amount of
discrimination still exists in terms of
access to water facilities.
|Protest against discrimination||0.10||The percentage of people who have
protested against discrimination is quite
|Conflict Resolution||0.40||Incidence of conflict resolution is low.|
|Standard of living||0.10||The standard of living assessed through
secondary data is low in the villages
|Perception of freedom||0.80||The perception of freedom is quite high
among the Dalits in Avani in terms of
mobility (freedom to walk in all parts of
the village), employment opportunities
and in having the opportunity to ask
questions and protest, if necessary.
|Gender dimension||0.40||About 40% percent of women
do not get adequate rest before delivery,
though almost all women get more than
three months of rest after delivery
|Access to Basic facilities||0.17||The percentage of toilets among Dalit
households is less than that of the
general population and the drainage
facilities are also lesser in comparison to
|Access to Education||0.50||There is no difference found between the
enrollment, attendance and transition rate
of Dalit and non-Dalit students
The study also highlights that issues of Persons with Disabilities (PwD). 2.1% of total population of Kolar district are People with Disability while for Karnataka and India the figures stands as 1.96% and 2.21% respectively. The reports highlights that poverty is the main causes of disability as the poor are more exposed to hazardous living and working conditions and inaccessible healthcare, poor nutrition measures etc. Similarly, disability can also be a cause of poverty.
From the above case study details, it is evident that the caste discrimination is still present and Dalits are victimized because of this discrimination. A just developmental state should guarantee the same and equal opportunities to all its citizens irrespective of gender, class or caste. A coordinating effort by people, local and state governments should address these issues.
In the next article, Clinic writes about the “Governance and Human Development” in Mulbagal Taluk and in Kolar district.
Written by : Vikash Madduri