Local Governance Clinic

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Clinic Exhibition Invitation

In Pursuit of Justice || A Journey through Three Developmental Clinics

Date: April 23, 2016 (Saturday) and April 24, 2016 (Sunday); Time: 11.00am – 6.30pm

Venue: Vismaya Gallery, Rangoli Metro Art Center Boulevard, Mahatma Gandhi Road, Bengaluru – 560 001

The Law and Governance Clinics at Azim Premji University, Bangalore are hosting a 2-day Clinic Exhibition entitled ‘In Pursuit of Justice’

We cordially invite you to attend our exhibition on Saturday, 23rd April, 2016 and Sunday, 24th April 2016 at the Vismaya Gallery, Rangoli – Metro Art Center Boulevard, Mahatma Gandhi Road, Bangalore – feel free to drop in anytime from 11.30 am to 6.30 pm. Do join clinic educators and student members of the clinics to learn more about experiential education and the work that students are undertaking on urgent issues concerning justice and development. Come and experience the journeys of the three clinics through shared learning and reflection.

The exhibition features work carried out between August 2015 and April 2016 by the  Local Governance Clinic, the Land Governance Clinic, and the Human Rights Clinic at Azim Premji University.

We also have a panel discussion ‘Learning through Developmental Clinics’ with clinic educators from Azim Premji University at 4 pm on Saturday, 23rd April 2016.

Details about the Law and Governance Clinics at Azim Premji University can be found online here.

For any enquiries, contact bhavna.jha@apu.edu.in or abhayraj.naik@apu.edu.in

Find our event on Facebook at: http://bit.ly/1U4CyyX

We look forward to seeing you there.

Sign yourself up for the Event on Facebook!

 

SDMC’s in Nangali Gram Panchayat- An Overview

Many initiatives were taken by the central government of India and the state governments respectively to improve the accessibility and quality of school education in India. The Government of Karnataka has taken a ground-breaking step to make school education more participatory with the involvement of parents in the school’s decisions. The government  established School Development and Monitoring Committees (SDMC) to ensure community participation in the education of their children. The SDMCs under the Karnataka Panchayati Raj Act of 1993 have been operational since 2006.[1] The law mandates that each school should constitute SDMC.

IMG-20160411-WA0040

Image: Members of SDMC in a school

The field site, Nangali Gram Panchayat constitutes of eight villages. The schools in all the eight villages have SDMC setup. We interviewed the teachers, headmasters and in some schools the parent members of the committee regarding the functioning and need of such a committee. The teachers responded that they have formulated SDMC keeping in mind the guidelines specified in the Act. Most of the school headmasters were generous enough to show us the minutes of the meetings that they have conducted over the last few months. The law mandates that the meetings of SDMC should be held atleast once in a month. But in most of the schools (75%) that we visited, the meetings were held once in three or four months. The data (on papers) shows that the committees are formed, however in practice/on ground, we discovered that the committees are formed but the meeting were not conducted atleast once after the commencement or orientation meeting. When asked about the problems they are facing in functioning of the committee, the teachers said that the parents do not turn up for the meetings and hence if there is no quorum, the meeting gets either postponed or cancelled.

IMG-20160411-WA0030.jpg

Image: Minutes of the meeting book

We found that approximately in 60% of the schools, the members of the committee were not aware of their duties and responsibilities. The teachers and the headmasters were hesitant to introduce the parents to us. What surprised was the fact that in some schools, some members were not aware that they are the members of a committee. Most of the parents are part of these committees just for the sake. The parents of most of the students work as daily laborers and it is very difficult for them to leave work and come for the meetings. They say if they do not work and attend the meeting then their children will have to starve for a meal. Their only source of income is their daily wage and they cannot compromise on it. The schools where parents are not participating  are facing extreme danger of polluted water, shortage of books and uniforms, leaking roofs etc. 

.IMG-20160411-WA0061

In contrast, The two schools we visited has committee that is constituted and functioning regularly. The result of such participation is seen from outside the school itself. The schools have pukka (concrete) buildings, toilet facilities, water tap connection etc. The parents are participate efficiently, meet regularly and decide on the issues that the school is facing and take it to the higher authorities. The parents also monitor the attendance of the teachers which results in the improvement of learning outcomes of the students.

We believe that there is need for community participation and monitoring mechanisms for the better functioning of the schools and SDMC is a great platform to fulfill this. Having said this, our experience with the eight schools in Nangali Gram Panchayat is that there is lack of capacity building training amongst the members of the committee. If there is proper training, awareness workshops, and some incentive for parents to participate in the school planning then SDMCs can achieve the goal with which they have been instituted.

IMG-20160411-WA0029.jpg

[1] The Law is, ‘ The Karnataka Gram Panchayat’s (School Development and Monitoring Committees) (Model) Bye-Laws, 2006’

Governance and Human Development in Kolar district

In a series of articles on ‘Kolar District Human Development Report-2014’, the Local Governance Clinic explains the development and issues that are perturbing development in Mulbagal Taluk (our work site) and in the district of Kolar. This article, eleventh in the series, titled “Governance and Human Development” explains the status of governance, basic infrastructure for service delivery in the district of Kolar and in Mulbagal Taluk. This article,being last in this series, also provides the brief summary of the report. It is important to mention here that the data represented in this article is extracted from the HDI report.
Good governance has eight major characteristics. They are participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law. Governance is important as it influence the planning, prioritization and decision making processes that effects the outcomes of various developmental policies, schemes and programs of the government. It is important to understand local governance structure i.e. Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRIs) and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), political and bureaucratic stability in the district of Kolar. Kolar is also has multiple non-governmental organizations, women groups, self help groups and youth groups working on governance issues.

The Karnataka Panchayat Raj Act, 1993 establishes a three- tier Panchayat Raj System in the State with the elected bodies at Gram, Taluk and District levels for greater participation of the people and more effective implementation of rural developed programs in the State. Further, The government of Karnataka has also passed Belur Declaration in the year 2004, to strengthen PRI systems. It sought to advance the scope of PRIs by bringing primary schools, rural libraries, adult education centers, Anganwadis, ANM Sub-centers and fair price shops within the administrative ambit of Gram Panchayats. Key indicators of the efficiency of decentralization at the district level and below are: equitable political representation in decentralized structures like ZP, TP and GP, political and bureaucratic stability, effectiveness and efficiency of fund utilization and progress in important development schemes and initiatives. A brief about the status of all these parameters is discussed below.

(a) Political Representation:

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

The report observes that the different social classes are duly represented politically at the GP level and there is scope for increasing their representation in the ZP and TP levels (specifically of the SC category). In the ULBs, political representation of SCs (22.23%) in slightly less than the population proportion of SCs in urban areas (28.84%). The political representation of women at the GP level is yet to reach the prescribed norm of 50%, whereas at the ZP and TP levels, their representation is above the minimum prescribed norms. In the ULBs, women’s political representation is 39.16%.

(b) Stability of Political Leadership and bureaucracy
The stability of any governance structure derives from the stability of its political and bureaucratic leadership. To analyse the stability of the governance regime of the PRI structure in the district, the terms of office of key political and bureaucratic positions of the ZP serve as useful indicators. The tables below present the terms of office of the ZP’s political leadership (President and Vice President, both having a term of office of two years) and its top bureaucratic positions: Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of ZP, Deputy Secretary (DS) and the Chief Planning Officer (CPO), all of which are senior positions in the state bureaucracy.

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

From the above table, it is important to note that political and bureaucratic stability is important for achieve the objectives of Human Development in Kolar district.

(c) Fiscal Trends:

ZP and TP levels are dependent on devolution of government funds entirely, the GPs have the power of taxation and can raise their own resources for fund
mobilization. However, in reality, the PRI structures are dependent substantially on funds devolved from Central and State governments. The graph shows that, on the average, the share of own resources in Kolar’s GPs was only 4.61% of the total receipts of its GPs.

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

(d) Basic Public Service delivery infrastructure.

Not only governance structures but also physical infrastructure for delivering public goods and services , is another important parameter that contributes to the Human Development. The below picture indicates the status of basic public service delivery infrastructure in Kolar district.

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

From the above table, it is evident that Health infrastructure , expenditure and the number of villages not having PDS shops- requires immediate attention.

Further, many E governance Initiatives like Health management Information Systems (HMIS), Mother and Child Trafficking System (MCTS), Panchatantra, Panchamitra, MGNREGA Management Information System (NREGA MIS), Housing Schemes, SSA Management Information System, Bhoomi Software have also been implemented to address some of the governance challenges in Kolar District.

Key summary details of the Kolar HDI Report:

In summary, the report highlights the necessity of attaining higher literacy rates and reducing gender disparities in literacy rates ; improving the effectiveness in guaranteeing universal primary education; addressing the issues of declining sex-ratios, MMR, Child health; impacts of ground water contamination on health, regulation and mitigation strategies ; sustainable agricultural growth ; better provisioning of basic amenities, access to latrines and to drinking water to all communities and inclusion of Persons with Disabilities into the main stream community.

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

Source: Kolar district HDI report-2014

Written by: Vikash Madduri

Status of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat and in Kolar district

In a series of articles on ‘Kolar District Human Development Report-2014’, the Local Governance Clinic explains the development and issues that are perturbing development in Mulbagal Taluk (our work site) and in the district of Kolar. This article, tenth in the series, titled “Status of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat and in Kolar district” explains the status of SC and ST communities and their issues in the district of Kolar and Mulbagal Taluk. The Local Governance Clinic, has carefully analysed the status of these communities in Mulbagal TP and extracted key parameters to learn how their intervention can better understand the severity of the issues involved. This comparative analysis (among co-taluk panchayats) helps narrowing the focus of clinic’s intervention. It is important to mention here that while the source for data remained the HDI report, analysis work is done and tabulated by the Clinic.

Source:www.youtube.com

Source:www.youtube.com

Source:www.goseefeel.com

Source:www.goseefeel.com

 

Parameter Value Rank of TP in the District Range values* of Indexes of TPs in Kolar District (excluding Mulbagal Values) Remarks
% of SC Population 28.93% 2 23.61%-40.18% ·  Lower than district’s population  (30.32%)
% of ST Population 3.34% 4 2.41%-10.65% ·  Lower than district’s population  (5.13%)
Sex Ratio in SC community 998.91 2 990.23-1019.16 · Lower than district’s ratio (1003)
Sex Ratio in ST community 958.33 5 962.72-987.06 · Lower than district’s ratio (972.02)
Sex Ratio in non-SC,non-ST communities 984.36 2 956.67-989.41 · Higher than district’s ratio (978.89)
Proportion of SC children in Enrollment 31.45 2 25.25-40.99 · Slightly lower than district’s value (31.82)
Proportion of SC children in Enrollment 4.26 4 3.98-25.38 · Lower than district’s value (6.50)
People with Disability (Taluk’s Proportion)# 14.70% 5 16.97%-24.80%  
^ in lakhs of rupees,

All values are calculated based on the data available for the year 2008-09

Survey conducted in 2007-08

 

Perhaps, one can say that a place is developed, if its lower sections of people or vulnerable people are developed. Kolar district, on this measure, has not fared well. Kolar district has highest SC population in the state, when compared to other districts. However, the standard of living of SC and ST communities are poor and is far beyond of other non SC  and non ST communities. These communities are clearly disadvantaged. 37.55% of SC  and 38.44% of ST population in the district have no near by access to drinking water while for other community groups(non SC, non ST) the no access is only 27.10%. Similarly, 66.78% of SC and 73.58% of ST population in the district do open defecation while the same for other community groups (non SC, non ST), the figure is 44.96% only.

The report prepares a Composite Dalit Development Index (CDDI), that has been prepared to determine the development of Dalits in the one Gram panchayath of the district. Dalit Deprivation Index (DDI) is further derived from CDDI. Data for the purpose of this calculation and analysis was collected from Avani Gram Panchayath in Mulbagal Taluk of Kolar District. The following table briefly highlights the indicators of CDDI and DDI.

 

Description Value Remarks
Institutional inclusion 0.67 Healthy presence of SC members
in various committees such as SDMCs,
Water Societies, etc.

 

Social inclusion 0.60 Entry in to temples, hotels etc is good but Dalits having
freedom to enter a non-Dalit house is
almost non-existent.
Perception of discrimination 0.70 The perception of discrimination in terms
of access to education or health services
is quite low, whereas some amount of
discrimination still exists in terms of
access to water facilities.

 

Protest against discrimination 0.10 The percentage of people who have
protested against discrimination is quite
low.

 

Conflict Resolution 0.40 Incidence of conflict resolution is low.
Standard of living 0.10 The standard of living assessed through
secondary data is low in the villages
surveyed
Perception of freedom 0.80 The perception of freedom is quite high
among the Dalits in Avani in terms of
mobility (freedom to walk in all parts of
the village), employment opportunities
and in having the opportunity to ask
questions and protest, if necessary.
Gender dimension 0.40 About 40% percent of women
do not get adequate rest before delivery,
though almost all women get more than
three months of rest after delivery
Access to Basic facilities 0.17 The percentage of toilets among Dalit
households is less than that of the
general population and the drainage
facilities are also lesser in comparison to
the others
Access to Education 0.50 There is no difference found between the
enrollment, attendance and transition rate
of Dalit and non-Dalit students
CDDI 0.44  
DDI 0.56  

The study also highlights that issues of Persons with Disabilities (PwD). 2.1% of total population of Kolar district are People with Disability while for Karnataka and India the figures stands as 1.96% and 2.21% respectively. The reports highlights that poverty is the main causes of disability as the poor are more exposed to hazardous living and working conditions and inaccessible healthcare, poor nutrition measures etc. Similarly, disability can also be a cause of poverty.

From the above case study details, it is evident that the caste discrimination is still present and Dalits are victimized because of this discrimination. A just developmental state should guarantee the same and equal opportunities to all its citizens irrespective of gender, class or caste. A coordinating effort by people, local and state governments should address these issues.

 In the next article, Clinic writes about the “Governance and Human Development” in Mulbagal Taluk and in Kolar district.

Written by : Vikash Madduri

Gender and Development in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat and in Kolar district

In a series of articles on ‘Kolar District Human Development Report-2014’, the Local Governance Clinic explains the development and issues that are perturbing development in Mulbagal Taluk (our work site) and in the district of Kolar. This article, ninth in the series, titled “Gender and Development in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat and Kolar district ” explains the status of women and their issues in the district of Kolar and Mulbagal Taluk. The Local Governance Clinic, has carefully analysed the status of women in Mulbagal TP and extracted key parameters to learn how their intervention can better understand the severity of the issues involved. This comparative analysis (among co-taluk panchayats) helps narrowing the focus of clinic’s intervention. It is important to mention here that while the source for data remained the HDI report, analysis work is done and tabulated by the Clinic.

Women plays a center role in Human development. However, for various (structural) reasons , women lagged behind acquiring their rights in India. Many schemes like  Mother and child tracking system (to improve the health status of pregnant women and children), Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana, Conditional Maternity Benefit, Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls – Sabala , The Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (The National Credit Fund for Women), Priyadarshini – SHGs development etc was introduced for the upliftment of women at the national level. The government of Karnataka has launched many schemes like Bhagyalakshmi scheme, attendance scholarship for girls from rural areas, crèches for the children of working women, Housing scheme for women (Indira Awas Yojana), Widow pension scheme, Ujjawala (for the Prevention of Trafficking and Rescue, Rehabilitation and Re – integration of victims of trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation) to improve the status of women in Karnataka.

Gender Inequality Index (GII) is another important index of the Human Development Index. It takes reproductive health, empowerment and political participation of women as important components. The indicators and their values are presented in the following table which highlights the status of women and their issues in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat. For example, the first row refers to Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) value of Mulbagal TP i.e. 211. Mulbagal TP stands at 5th place among 5 TPs in the Kolar district. The range value indicates the relative minimum and maximum values of other taluk panchayats.

 

Parameter Value Rank of TP in the District Range values* of Indexes of TPs in Kolar District (excluding Mulbagal Values) Remarks
MMR 211 5 196-80 ·  Highest MMR in the district
Share of Institutional Deliveries 97.97% 2 97.38%-98.63%  
Anemia among pregnant women 50.32% 1 85.45%-63.33%  
% of Female elected representations in Pachayat Raj Institutions 43.31% 3 41.83%-44.15% ·      20% women from SC/ST communities and 24% belong to backward classes
Share of females in 0-6 years age population 49.04% 3 48.67%-49.19%  
Female Literacy Rate 61.90% 5 62.30-71.95%  
Female work participation rate 51.11% 1 29.02%-49.75%  
Female non-agri workers in total female workers 27.31% 4 24.64%-47.96%  
Female agricultural wage rates 236.50 1 236.50-236.50 ·  Equal in all 5 TPs
GII 0.098 2 0.148-0.093 · Relatively good
Child Sex Ratio 962.41 3 947.99-968.08 ·  Almost same as district’s average (962.38)
%Gap between Male and Female literacy 17.33% 2 17.86%-13.11% · Higher than district’s (14.97%)and state’s gap (14.72%)
Crime reported against women (2012) 20 1 20-60 · Least in the district
         
Notes:

(1) *The range values represented here comprises of the value of worst and good values. The right handside value indicates the relatively better value. For ex. In the case of %BPL, lower the value of BPL,  the better is the value of that parameter.

(2) All values are calculated based on the data available for the year 2008-09

The report highlights that gender disparities are evident in important indicators like literacy, work participation and political representation in Panchayat Raj Institutions and Urban Local Bodies. Important problems like early marriages (before 18 years; as highlighted by District Level Household Survey (DLHS) conducted in 2007-08), Crime against women should be addressed by the respective authorities.

In the next article, Clinic writes about the status of “Status of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes” in Mulbagal Taluk and in Kolar district.

Written by: Vikash Madduri

Income, Poverty, Employment and Standard of Living in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat and in Kolar district.

In a series of articles on ‘Kolar District Human Development Report-2014’, the Local Governance Clinic explains the development and issues that are perturbing development in Mulbagal Taluk (our work site) and in the district of Kolar. This article, eighth in the series, titled “Status of Income, Poverty, Employment and Standard of Living in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat and in Kolar district ” explains the income, poverty and employment details of the district of Kolar and Mulbagal Taluk. The Local Governance Clinic, has carefully analysed the status of Income, Poverty and Employment in Mulbagal TP and extracted key parameters to learn how their intervention can better understand the severity of the issues involved. This comparative analysis (among co-taluk panchayats) helps narrowing the focus of clinic’s intervention. It is important to mention here that while the source for data remained the HDI report, analysis work is done and tabulated by the Clinic.

Kolar district, known as the land of Silk, Milk and Gold, has a District Domestic Production of worth 626657 (in Rs Lakhs). This has a contribution – 29% from primary sector,28% from secondary sector and 43% from tertiary sector. The report suggests that the district has not made much progress in industrial development. Further, the agriculture productivity should be improved, which remained a great challenge as the ground water extraction has already reached unsustainable levels. Improving essential industrial skills in the workforce, expansion of industries would help improve the standard of living in the district.

An employee counts Indian currency notes at a cash counter inside a bank in Kolkata

Source:www.letstalkpayments.com

The computation of HDI includes 5 out of a total 11 indicators linked to Standard of living, which are essential for Human Development. These five indicators i.e. Access to Cooking fuel, Access to Pucca Houses, Access to Toilets, Access to Water, Access to Electricity will directly reflect the status of living conditions and will be more helpful in key policy decision making processes.

The below table highlights and briefs the status of Income, Poverty, Employment and Standard of Living in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat. For example, the first row refers Gross Taluk Domestic Product of Mulbagal TP i.e. 127972 (in Rs Lakh) . Mulbagal TP stands at 3rd place among 5 TPs in the Kolar district. The range value indicates the relative minimum and maximum values of other taluk panchayats.

Parameter Value Rank of TP in the District Range values* of Indexes of TPs in Kolar District (excluding Mulbagal Values) Remarks
Gross Taluk Domestic Product (GTDP in Rs lakhs ) 127972 3 85807-190146 ·  39% from primary sector,27% from secondary sector,34% from tertiary sector.
% of GTDP to GDDP 20.4 3 13.7-30.3  
Gross Percapita Income (in INR) 50478 1 35769-43671 Better than district’s average (41219) and close to state’s average (53101).
BPL% 73.05% 1 72.28%-62.19% ·  More number of people are poor.

·  Higher than district’s average (67.24%)

Work Participation rates 59.34% 1 46.27-58.65% ·  Male-67.46% and Female-51.7%

·  Higher than district’s average  (52.55%)

Child Labour (boys and girls at both dangerous and non-dangerous work places) 82 3 55-160 ·  KGF and Bangarpet data are calculated separately.

·  167 out of 501 children are rehabilitated.

% use of groundwater extraction 201 2 165-211 ·  Poor ground water recharge practices
STANDARD OF LIVING INDICATORS
Number of Households 54377 3 43143-99467  
Households with Pucca Houses 67.53% 4 65%-71.43%  
Households that do not have any assets like  TV,Vehicle, Mobile Phone, Banking Services 18.79% 2 19.18%-11.10% ·  Higher than district’s average (14.84%)

· 45.66% households don’t have access to Banking services.

Major Sources of Drinking water (Tap) 70.84% 1 52.02-68.20% ·  Higher than district’s average (63.13%)
Major Sources of Drinking water (Tube/bore well) 24.69% 4 23.36%-45.27% ·  Lower than district’s average (27.95%)
Drinking water (away from premises) 27.59% 3 24.02%-39.30% ·  Lower than district’s average (30.75%)

·  Higher than state’s average (18.21%)

Access to Electricity 91.29% 5 92.90%-98.51% ·  Lower than district’s (93.51%)and state’s average (90.63%)
Households using Traditional Fuels 81.46% 2 85.33%-72.25% ·  Higher than district’s (77.04%)and state’s average (66.05%)
Households using Modern Fuels 18.34% 4 14.51-27.37%

 

·  Lower than district’s (22.65%)and state’s average (33.52%)
Households having access to latrine 33.37% 4 30.25%-56.70% ·  Lower than district’s average (42.80%)

 

Households having practice of Open Defecation 64.89% 2 67.76%-41.30% ·  Higher than district’s (52.88%)and state’s average (44.96%)
% of Nirmal Gram Panchayat Award winning Gram Panchayats 6.67%

(2 out of 30)

2 0-13.51% ·  Higher than district’s average (5.77%)

·

Notes:

(1) *The range values represented here comprises of the value of worst and good values. The right handside value indicates the relatively better value. For ex. In the case of %BPL, lower the value of BPL,  the better is the value of that parameter.

(2) All values are calculated based on the data available for the year 2008-09

From the above table, we can understand that access to drinking water, access to defecation, access to modern fuels, access to electricity are poor and need immediate attention. Arresting extraction of ground water  and eradication of child labor should be the immediate priority for both the local and state governments.

In the next article, Clinic writes about the status of “Gender and Development” in Mulbagal Taluk and in Kolar district.

Written by: Vikash Madduri

Why Village Water Committees are important in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat?

The Clinic considers Water scarcity in Kolar and Mulbagilu as a major issue. The Clinic would like to focus on this issue for their intervention purpose. In this regard, this article, seventh in the series presents water scarcity and its issues in our site area.

The most important health issue in Kolar is fluorosis. The excess amount of Fluorides in the body causes skeletal and dental problems and also permanent disability and joint problems. According to WHO, fluoride level in water should be within 1.5 mg/L but the fluoride concentration of ground water in Kolar ranges from 2.8 to 4.3 mg/L. More than 80% of the children of age group 6-14 suffer skeletal and dental fluorosis because of this excess fluoride in water. The fluoride weakens their teeth, hands and legs. In 2013, National program for the prevention and control of Fluorosis has been launched and Kolar is one among the districts where the program has been started under the health and family welfare dept. This expected to stop the effect of fluorides on health of children.

Water availability is very much important for all the living organism and for their activities like agriculture, industrial usage etc. The quality of water and access to it are serious problems in many taluks, especially in Mulabagilu. Only 25.97% of the households have access to drinking water within the premises in Kolar district.37 habitations are affected by Fluoride contamination and 117 habitations are affected by Nitrate contamination, out of 170 affected habitations in Mulbagilu Taluk. The intensity of water problems can be understood from the voice of a citizen, extracted from the report, to present below.

“As of now, there could be around 100 to 200 Persons with Disability in our (Mulabagil) Gram Panchayat limits, but if you come five years later, you may find around 50% of our population with disability. We know we are living in risky situation. We are inevitably drinking water with high fluoride content and other toxic materials. Malnourishment is common among us, especially in children and adolescents. So, certainly there will be more disabled people for you to survey in the coming years”

The above voice of citizen resonate the severity of the water problem in Mulbagilu taluk. A detailed study to understand , explore conservation practices and mitigation strategies by great coordination between panchayat water committees and government departments, would limit the severity of ground water depletion problem in Mulbagilu Taluk. Hence, the clinic observes that it is important form Village Water Committees in these villages.

In the next article, Clinic writes about the status of Income, Poverty and Employment and their related issues in Mulbagal Taluk and in Kolar district.

Written by: Vikash Madduri

Status of Health and Nutrition in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat and in Kolar district

In a series of articles on ‘Kolar District Human Development Report-2014’, the Local Governance Clinic explains the development and issues that are perturbing development in Mulbagal Taluk (our work site) and in the district of Kolar. This article, sixth in the series, titled “Status of Health and Nutrition in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat and Kolar district ” explains the health profile of the Kolar district and Mulbagal Taluk. The Local Governance Clinic, has carefully analysed the status of Health and Nutrition in Mulbagal TP and extracted key parameters to learn how their intervention can better understand the severity of the issues involved. This comparative analysis (among co-taluk panchayats) helps narrowing the focus of clinic’s intervention. It is important to mention here that while the source for data remained the HDI report, analysis work is done and tabulated by the Clinic.
Kolar’s overall human development status is average in comparison to other districts in the state of Karnataka. The Karnataka State Health Policy (2004) has categorized Kolar district as ‘Average performing state’ which secured 16th rank with a score of 71.92 on composite health index .

MMR in Kolar is 140. Major causes of MMR are Septic shock or infection, Postpartum Haemorrhage, respiratory and cardiac causes etc. Further, 25% of maternal deaths happened while at home ,38% death while on transit and 37% death at hospital. All these can be avoided when family members and local communities discuss the issues and meet regularly to discuss improving health facilities.

The health infrastructure in Mulbagal TP seems comparatively better than other TPs. It has 64 Sub centers, 17 Primary Health Centers and 1 Taluk Hospital and no Community Health Centers. Further, it also has 4 allopathic hospitals, 1 AYUSH Clinics, 10 private hospitals and 25 Private Clinics. Each sub center in Mulbagal serves 3150 people while each PHC serves 11862 people. There are 0.19 (less than one) doctors, 0.17 Nurse, 2.79 Beds available per a population of 1000 in Mulbagal against the Indian Public Health Standards’ mandate of 1 doctor, 3 nurses and 6 beds respectively for a PHC level institution.

For effective institutional delivery, the government has launched two programs. They are Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a cash incentive driven program, and distribution of Madilu Kit for post-natal care of mothers and infants. However, it seems that people are not covered effectively under these schemes in Mulbagal TP as well as in District. Out of 3902 institutional deliveries, only 2570 were covered under JSY scheme and only 2750 availed Madilu Kits in Mulbagal TP. Mulbagal with highest home delivery in the district also reported the highest infant, child and maternal deaths.

Being a border area sharing district (with Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh states), migration is quite common in Kolar district. Hence coordination is required for many health related issues like registration of pregnancy, regular ANC check-ups, distribution of IFS tablets for pregnant women and for controlling different diseases like TB and HIV etc.

The below table highlights and briefs the status of health and nutrition in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat. For example, the first row refers to Child Sex Ration in Mulbagal TP i.e. 962. Mulbagal TP stands at 3rd place among 5 TPs in the Kolar district. The range value indicates the relative minimum and maximum values of other taluk panchayats.

Parameter Value Rank of TP in the District Range values* of Indexes of TPs in Kolar District (excluding Mulbagal Values) Remarks
Child Sex Ratio 962 3 948-968 ·  Decreasing trend
Institutional deliveries 97.97% 2 97.38%-98.63%
Maternal Mortality Rate 211 1 80-196 ·  Much higher than state’s average (178) and districts average (140)
Infant Mortality Rate(death before 1 year) 51 1 37-18 ·  Higher than districts average of 34
Child Mortality Rate(death before 5 years) 63 1 62-23 ·  Higher than districts average of 39
Children fully immunized 91.11% 4 83.57%-100% ·  Lesser than district’s average (92.94%)
Children born underweight 9.13% 1 8.80%-7.78% ·  Higher than district’s average of 8.46%
Malnourished Children 38.97% 2 40.53%-30.73% ·  Higher than district’s average of 35.37%
Proportion of couples using contraceptive methods 14.72 2 9.89-17.45 ·  Higher than district’s average of 12.67
% of people effected by Commnicable diseases 0.67 3 1.08-0.54 ·  Higher than district’s average of 0.54
ASHAs (shortage in numbers) 53 1 36-16 ·  High shortage
Per Capita expenditure on Health 75.66 1 35.35-67.43 ·  Higher than district’s average of 50.28
Notes:

(1) *The range values represented here comprises of the value of worst and good values. The right handside value indicates the relatively better value. For ex. In the case of Child Sex Ration, higher the value of CSR,  the better is the value of that parameter.

(2) Most of the data analysis is based on the year 2011-12 data.

From the above table, one can read that Mulbagilu Taluk Panchayat needs immediate attention. The MMR, IMR,  CMR , Children born under-weight, Malnourished Children and shortage of ASHA workers is high and need to be addressed by the government immediately.In the next article, Clinic writes about the water issues in Mulbagal Taluk and in Kolar district.

Written by: Vikash Madduri

Status of Literacy and Education in Kolar district and in Mulbagal TP

 

In a series of articles on ‘Kolar District Human Development Report-2014’, the Local Governance Clinic explains the development and issues that are perturbing development in Mulbagal Taluk (our work site) and in the district of Kolar. This article, fifth in the series, titled “Status of Literacy and Education in Kolar district and Mulbagal TP” explains the literacy and education issues in the district Kolar and in Mulbagal Taluk. The Local Governance Clinic, has carefully analysed the status of Education in Mulbagal TP and extracted key parameters to learn how their intervention can better understand the severity of the issues involved. Further, this comparative analysis (among co-taluk panchayats) helps narrowing the focus of clinic’s intervention. It is important to mention here that while the source for data remained the HDI report, analysis work is done by the Clinic.

Education is a basic human right. Access to Education, as a fundamental right, was incorporated by the government of India under article 21A of the Indian constitution. Education plays a key role in human development. The government of Karnataka has many interesting programs like distribution of uniforms,text books, bicycles and mid-day meals scheme to 1-10 standard students, to improve access to and quality of education.

Kolar district has a literacy rate of 74.39% (Male-81% and Women-66.83%) which is almost close to India’s national average literacy 74.04% (Male-82.14% and Women-65.46%).  However, this number is, far beyond the nation’s ambitious target of achieving 85% literacy rates by districts, by 2012. Among the other districts in Karnataka, Kolar stands at 14th position according to the census 2011.

There are 1283 primary education, 930 higher primary and 316 high schools (2011-12) in Kolar district. Out of which, Mulbagilu TP has 434 schools out of 2213 schools, which is second highest after Kolar TP  in Kolar district. Post secondary education is offered in 12 colleges in Mulbagilu in which 3836 students have registered.Where as there is one first grade degree college  in Mulbagilu which has 1570 registered students.

The below table highlights and briefs the status of literacy and education in Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat. For example, the first row refers to Literacy value of Mulbagal TP i.e. 70.61% and its sub indexes values. Mulbagal TP stands at 4th place among 5 TPs in the Kolar district. The range value indicates the relative minimum and maximum values of other taluk panchayats in Kolar district.

Parameter Value Sub Indexex Values Rank of TP in the District Range values* of Indexes of TPs in Kolar District (excluding Mulbagal Values)
Literacy (2011 Census) 70.61% Male (79.22%) Female(61.89%) 4 70.37%-78.49%
Enrollment of Primary School Children (Class 1-8) 16.68% of district Class 1-5(17%) Class 6-8(16.13%) 2 13.66%-24.92%
Enrollment of High School Children (Class 8-10) 15.50% of district Male (49.86%) Female (50.14%) 3 14.23%-24.37%
Gross Enrollment Rate (Class 8-10) 95.89% Class 1-5(97.56%) Class 6-8(89.96%) 4 91.95%-100%
Net Enrollment Ratio (Class 8-10) 95.43%     3 90.86%-97.27%
Out of primary school children 140     3 64-182
Dropout rate 0.43%     2 0.64%-0.23%
Teacher-Student Ratio   Primary Level(28.90) Secondary Level(22.89)    
School Infrastructure Index 0.80     6 0.82-0.88
Notes:

*The range values represented here comprises of the value of worst and good values. The right handside value indicates the relatively better value. For ex. In the case of Gross Enrollment Ration, higher the value of GER,  the better is the value of that parameter.

 

From this chapter, it appears very clearly that Malur is lagging behind in all the education related parameters like literacy levels, gross enrollement rate, rate of out of school children, % of school children who has completed school education etc., which needs an immediate attention and focus by the government. Mulbagal performs relatively well in the district. However, it has lot of scope to improve. For example, the school infrastructure, number of out of school children etc. are to be improved, yet.

In the next article, Clinic writes about Health and Nutrition status and related issues in Mulbagal Taluk and in Kolar district.

Written by: Vikash Madduri

Brief introduction to Kolar district , Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat and Nangali Gram Panchayat

In a series of articles on ‘Kolar District Human Development Report-2014’, the Local Governance Clinic explains the development and issues that are perturbing development in Mulbagal Taluk (our work site) and in the district of Kolar. This article, third in the series, titled “Brief introduction to  Kolar district , Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat and Nangali Gram Panchayat” introduce the reader to Kolar district, to Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat and to Nangali Gram Panchayat, which is our work site. It is important to mention here that the HDI report acts as main data source for this article.

Kolar, also known as Kolahalapura, was the capital of Gangas and also the battle ground between Chalukyas and Cholas. Kolar is spread across the geographical area of 3969 Sq. Km. It has 1599 inhabited villages , 6 towns and is categorized into 27 Hoblis. The district has a population of 15.36 Lakhs with a density of 387 people per Sq.Km. The average literacy rate of the district is 74.39%. The South Eastern districts shares its boundary with Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu states. Kolar is politically represented by one Member of Parliament (Kolar) and 6 Members of Legislative Assembly (one each from five taluk panchayats and one from Kolar Gold Fields region). While most of the work force in the Kolar district is working in Agriculture sector (64%), the primary sector’s contribution to District’s-GDP remained the second(29%), next to tertiary sector’s contribution(43%).

On demography, 69% population of Kolar district live in Rural areas (Census 2011). The district also has 30.32% population of SC community (which is greatly higher than the state’s average-17.15%)  and 5.13% population of ST community (which is lower than the state’s average – 6.95%). The sex ratio of Kolar district  is 978.8 which is much better than state’s average (972) and nation’s average (943). Population dynamics of Kolar district is almost same as that of Karnataka state. It has values of dependency ratio (48.72) close to that of Karnataka’s value 47.95. Mulbagal has a population of 2.58L and stands as 3rd most populous TP. It also registers 11.95 % decadal population growth rate.

Kolar falls under semi-arid climate zone and has a normal annual rainfall range between 799 mm  to 857 mm. The South-West monsoon contributes about 52% to 55% of the annual normal rainfall, followed by North-East monsoon season (30% to 32.5%).

Panchayat Raj Institution details in Kolar

Kolar district has a total of five Taluk Panchayats. The five taluk panchayats are Srinivaspura, Kolar, Malur, Bangarpet and Mulbagal. Kolar district has  a total of 28 Zilla Panchayat members, 89 Taluk Panchayat members and 2545 Gram Panchayat members. There are total 156 Gram Panchayats in these five taluk panchayats. Srinivaspur has 25 gram panchayats, Kolar-36, Malur-28, Bangarpet-37, and Mulbagal has 30 gram panchayats.

Urban Local Bodies details in Kolar:

There are total 6 Urban Local Bodies (4 town municipal corporations and 2 city municipal corporations) with a council meber strength of 169 in Kolar District. They are Kolar (35), Robertsonpet (Kolar Gold Field-38), Srinivaspur(23), Malur(23), Bangarpet(23) and Mulbagal(27).

Introduction to Mulbagal Taluk Panchayat and Nangali Gram Panchayat

Mulbagal is in Kolar district of Karnataka state in India.It’s about 100 km from Bangalore and 30 Km from Kolar on the Bangalore-Chennai National Highway. Mulbagal was originally called Mudalabagilu, meaning eastern entrance as it was the gateway to the erstwhile Mysore state in the Vijayanagara kingdom (Source : http://www.mulbagaltown.mrc.gov.in/). Mulbagal TP is spread across 823 Sq.km and located at 827 meters above mid sea level. It has 314 inhabited villages, 5 hoblis and  town. Mulbagilu has 30 gram panchayats. The Clinic spent its most of time at Nangali Gram Panchayat.

Nangali Gram Panchayat has 3 revenue villages (Nangali, Halekuppe and Kerasamangala) and 8 administration villages (Halekuppa, Kerasamangala, Jangalahalli, Kothooru, Kurubarahalli, Nangali, Venkatapura and Yeluvahalli). Brief details about general information on population, education, agriculture, co-operative societies, health, social welfare, animal husbandry  and housing scheme details have been prepared and presented in a MS Word document (Source: http://panchamitra.kar.nic.in/getGPData.aspx?selOption=7). Please click here to access the same.

Written by: Vikash Madduri

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